An important reply has been posted at this link regarding takfiir of anthropomorphists.
The great scholars of taşawwuf are also great scholars of belief, because taşawwuf is about bringing all ones actions, most specifically those of the heart, in alignment with the Islamic belief in Aļļaah. For this reason we will put some writings of taşawwuf on this blog. The first of these is from the ĥikam of Ibn ˆAţaa’ illaah As-Sakandariyy. These ĥikam, or words of wisdom, need to be put in context of each other as well as the Islamic beliefs and laws established by the Qur’aan, ĥadiitħs and Scholarly Ijmaaˆ Consensus. They are a set of tools for diagnosis and treatment of the heart. A competent medical doctor does not base his diagnosis on temperature alone, but combined with clinical signs, blood tests, x-rays and other tools. Having said that, the following is the first of the ĥikam and its explanation:
من علامات الاعتماد على العمل، نقصان الرجاء عند وجود الزلل
Among the sign of one’s reliance on his own effort, is the loss of hope when one makes a mistake.
The author is saying that if you experience such loss of hope, then this may be a sign that your heart is skewed towards relying on your deeds to succeed in the Hereafter. The perfect state however, is to rely on Aļļaah only, since He is the Creator of all deeds, all benefit, all harm, all reward, and all punishment. Nothing influences Aļļaah, including your deeds, because He created them, knew what you would do eternally, and He Himself is not created. He is eternal and does not change, so nothing with a beginning can influence Him in any way. He is the creator of everything, so He is not affected by it, because an effect must have a beginning, and anything with a beginning is His creation.
Aļļaah is not obliged to punish or reward anyone for anything they do.
Al-Bukħaariyy narrated through Abuu Hurayrah that the Prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم) said:
لَنْ يُدْخِلَ أَحَدًا عَمَلُهُ الْجَنَّةَ قَالُوا وَلا أَنْتَ يَا رَسُولَ اللَّهِ قَالَ لا وَلا أَنَا إِلاَّ أَنْ يَتَغَمَّدَنِي اللَّهُ بِفَضْلٍ وَرَحْمَةٍ فَسَدِّدُوا وَقَارِبُوا وَلا يَتَمَنَّيَنَّ أَحَدُكُمْ الْمَوْتَ إِمَّا مُحْسِنًا فَلَعَلَّهُ أَنْ يَزْدَادَ خَيْرًا وَإِمَّا مُسِيئًا فَلَعَلَّهُ أَنْ يَسْتَعْتِبَ
"Your deeds will not put you in Paradise." They asked: "Not even for you, O Messenger of Aļļaah?" He answered: "No, not even for me, except that Aļļaah will cover me with grace and mercy. So seek what is correct, and strive to be close to it, and let no one of you hope for death, because he will either be a doing well, so perhaps he will do better, or he will be doing poorly, so perhaps he will remove what is blameworthy."
The actions we make are creations of Allah, predestined and created by him.
Aļļaah (عز وجل) said:
وَاللَّهُ خَلَقَكُمْ وَمَا تَعْمَلُونَ
Meaning: "Aļļaah created you and what you do." (Aş-Şaaffaat. 96).
He (عز وجل) also said:
وما تشاءون إلا أن يشاء الله
Meaning: "You do not will anything unless Aļļaah has willed it." (Al-Insaan, 30).
Every instance of pleasure or pain is created by Him.
Aļļaah (عز وجل) said:
وَخَلَقَ كُلَّ شَيْءٍ فَقَدَّرَهُ تَقْدِيرًا
Meaning: "And He created everything and predestined it." (Al-Furqaan, 2) He (سبحانه وتعالى) also said:
هَلْ مِنْ خَالِقٍ غَيْرُ اللَّهِ
Meaning: "Is there another creator than Aļļaah?" (Faaţir, 3)
Accordingly, if one makes a mistake and loses hope because of that, then it is an indication that one is relying on one’s own deeds, rather than on their Creator.
As long as there is life there is hope
One should not lose hope, because it is the state one is at in the final moment that matters, and this can change completely in a matter of seconds. Al-Bukħaariyy narrated that the Prophet said:
إِنَّ أَحَدَكُمْ يُجْمَعُ فِي بَطْنِ أُمِّهِ أَرْبَعِينَ يَوْمًا ثُمَّ عَلَقَةً مِثْلَ ذَلِكَ ثُمَّ يَكُونُ مُضْغَةً مِثْلَ ذَلِكَ ثُمَّ يَبْعَثُ اللَّهُ مَلَكًا فَيُؤْمَرُ بِأَرْبَعٍ بِرِزْقِهِ وَأَجَلِهِ وَشَقِيٌّ أَوْ سَعِيدٌ فَوَاللَّهِ إِنَّ أَحَدَكُمْ أَوْ الرَّجُلَ يَعْمَلُ بِعَمَلِ أَهْلِ النَّارِ حَتَّى مَا يَكُونُ بَيْنَهُ وَبَيْنَهَا غَيْرُ بَاعٍ أَوْ ذِرَاعٍ فَيَسْبِقُ عَلَيْهِ الْكِتَابُ فَيَعْمَلُ بِعَمَلِ أَهْلِ الْجَنَّةِ فَيَدْخُلُهَا وَإِنَّ الرَّجُلَ لَيَعْمَلُ بِعَمَلِ أَهْلِ الْجَنَّةِ حَتَّى مَا يَكُونُ بَيْنَهُ وَبَيْنَهَا غَيْرُ ذِرَاعٍ أَوْ ذِرَاعَيْنِ فَيَسْبِقُ عَلَيْهِ الْكِتَابُ فَيَعْمَلُ بِعَمَلِ أَهْلِ النَّارِ فَيَدْخُلُهَا
"Verily one of you is gathered in his mothers stomach for forty days, then he is a blood-clot for forty days, then a piece of meat for forty days, then Aļļaah sends an angel ordered with four words: his provision, his end, happy or miserable. By Aļļaah, verily one of you may be committing the deeds of the people of Hell, until he is only an arm’s length away, when (it is as if) his destined end overwhelms him and he starts to perform the works of the people of Paradise, and enters it. And verily one of you may be committing the deeds of the people of Paradise, until he is only an arm’s length away, when (it is as if) his destined end overwhelms him and he starts to perform the works of the people of Hell, and enters it."
The meaning of all of the above
One’s hope for Allah’s grace and mercy should be based purely on hoping from Allah alone, because all your efforts, intentions and thoughts are all simply part of what Allah has created in you. Aļļaah is attributed with pure and perfect benevolence, His benevolence and gifts are hoped for because of His perfection in His Self, attributes and actions, not because of other than Him, including one’s deeds. This does not contradict the desire for His reward, due to His benevolence, when obedience occurs; nor does it contradict fear from punishment, when one is afflicted with committing a sin.
The point is that the focus of the one who truly knows Aļļaah, is towards His Lord and not his own deeds, because Aļļaah:
- gave us the power to do good deeds.
- created them in us.
- and out of generosity accepted them.
Not only that, but after he gave us the power, and created them, and accepted them, then without any obligation, he rewards us on our deeds. So how can we thank our God that rewards us on deeds that He created and accepted?
Scholars and worshipful Muslims used to perform a lot of prayers and fasting and other good deeds, because they knew that no matter what they do, they cannot thank Aļļaah as He deserves. The Prophet Muhammad had no sins to worry about for his Hereafter, yet his heals would get swollen from standing long hours in prayers. When asked about this he said, "should I not be a thankful slave?"
Good deeds are signs that a person is a good person, but if Allah does not accept them they are nothing. If a person made sujuud for Aļļaah on fire from the days of Adam to the end of this world will he have thanked Aļļaah as He deserves? How can he, when he is Aļļaah’s creation and Aļļaah is the one who created this sujuud in him and he is an absolute slave of Aļļaah, created and sustained by Him in every sense?
On the other hand, when a person does a bad thing, then the sin by itself is nothing in light of Aļļaah’s forgiveness and mercifulness, or His Self Existence, without need for anything or anyone. If a person does a sin and sees only his deed without recognizing Aļļaah’s mercifulness and forgiveness, then this is a sign that this person is arrogant; he gives his deeds a great deal of importance. Sins are signs that this person is not a thankful person, but sins by themselves are nothing if Aļļaah does not will to punish us for them.
All taşawwuf revolve around the belief that everything is by Aļļaah’s will, and is created by Aļļaah and that we are slaves that do not have the power or will to do anything if Aļļaah does not will it . Our own existence is by the will of Aļļaah and His creation. Our deeds are created by Aļļaah; our intensions are created by Aļļaah. We would be nothing if Aļļaah had not willed us to exist.
This does not mean that a person should not do good deeds or he should not feel sad or bad when he does a sin. It means that a person should know who he is. He should always remember that he is a slave that has no power or will if His Creator does not will.
All great sufis, scholars, and Islamic figures were great worshipers, because they knew the greatness of Aļļaah, and knew their state as slaves, and knew that no matter what they do they cannot thank their creator for all the gifts that He gave them. This state of always recognizing that they are slaves and trying to thank their Creator for all His gifts overwhelmed them and this led them to do all this worship.
Good deeds are good because they are signs of worshipping Aļļaah, and sins are bad because they are signs of disobeying Aļļaah. From this one can see why Allah might forgive sins, but will not forgive kufr, because the person who does a sin still recognizes that He is a slave and has a God, a Creator that owns him. The one who does kufr, however, is so egocentric that He thinks himself not a slave. Even when he worships idols he only does that because his ancestors did so, and this is arrogance in thinking high of his ancestors. If, on the other hand, he selects what he thinks is his god, other than Aļļaah, or attributes to Aļļaah what does not befit Him, then this is also arrogance, because he only does that thinking he has the right, or power, or knowledge to so.
I end this by saying that they say that Abuu Yaziid al Bustaamiyy saw Aļļaah in his dream and asked him: O Aļļaah! How can a person reach a state of "wusuul," which is a high state in taşawwuf (slavery to Aļļaah). They say that Allah answered him in the dream: "leave your ‘self’ and you will reach that state."
Further to the point that those who believe Aļļaah to be a body i.e. occupy a location are not Muslims, as mentioned in "The difference between the Wahabi creed and Islam", here are some quotes by well known scholars testifying to that :
Al-ˆAsqalaaniyy said they are not Muslims:
قال حذاق المتكلمين ما عرف الله من شبهه بخلقه أو أضاف إليه اليد أو أضاف إليه الولد فمعبودهم الذي عبدوه ليس هو الله وإن سموه به (فتح الباري, ابن حجر العسقلاني, دار المعرفة – بيروت ، 1379, 3 / 359)
The brilliant kalaam scholars said: "The one that likened Aļļaah to His creation, or ascribed a hand to Him (i.e. in the sense of a part or limb) or a child; what he worships is not Aļļaah, even if he called it Aļļaah.
An-Nawawiyy and Al-Qaađii ˆIiaađ said they are not Muslims:
قوله صلى الله عليه و سلم ( فليكن أول ما تدعوهم إليه عبادة الله فإذا عرفوا الله فأخبرهم إلى آخره ) قال القاضي عياض رحمه الله هذا يدل على أنهم ليسوا بعارفين الله تعالى وهو مذهب حذاق المتكلمين في اليهود والنصارى أنهم غير عارفين الله تعالى وان كانوا يعبدونه ويظهرون معرفته لدلالة السمع عندهم على هذا وان كان العقل لا يمنع أن يعرف الله تعالى من كذب رسولا قال القاضي عياض رحمه الله ما عرف الله تعالى من شبهه وجسمه من اليهود أو اجاز عليه البداء أو أضاف إليه الولد منهم أو أضاف إليه الصاحبة والولد وأجاز الحلول عليه والانتقال والامتزاج من النصارى أو وصفه مما لا يليق به أو أضاف إليه الشريك والمعاند في خلقه من المجوس والثنوية فمعبودهم الذى عبدوه ليس هو الله وان سموه به اذ ليس موصوفا بصفات الاله الواجبة له فاذن ما عرفوا الله سبحانه فتحقق هذه النكتة واعتمد عليها وقد رأيت معناها لمتقدمى أشياخنا وبها قطع الكلام ابوعمران الفارسى بين عامة اهل القيروان عند تنازعهم في هذه المسألة هذا آخر كلام القاضي رحمه الله تعالى. (المنهاج شرح صحيح مسلم بن الحجاج , النووي , دار إحياء التراث العربي , 1392, 1 / 199-200)
The saying of the Prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم) "let the first you call them to be the worship of Aļļaah, then when they know Aļļaah tell them…" etc. Al-Qaađii ˆIiaađ (رحمه الله) said: "This (i.e. the foregoing statement of the Prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم)) indicates that they (the Christians) do not know Aļļaah, and this is the saying of the brilliant kalaam scholars regarding the jews and the Christians; that they do not know Aļļaah (تعالى) even if they worship Him (i.e. call what they worship by His name) and making it appear as if they know Him, based on what they narrate amongst themselves, even though it is not impossible in the mind’s eye that someone who disbelieves in a messenger does know Aļļaah." Al-Qaađii ˆIiaađ (رحمه الله) said: The one that likened Aļļaah to His creation, or believed Him to be bodily among the jews and Christians, or believed that He gains knowledge over time, or claimed He has a child, or a female companion and a child, or said he could exist in created things, or move from one place to another, or be mixed with creation, among the Christians or attributed to Him what is not befitting, or associated with Him a partner or opponent in creating among the Magians an dualists; what they worship is not Aļļaah, even if they called it that. This is because it is not attributed with the attributes that are necessarily His. Accordingly, they do not know Aļļaah (سبحانه), so realize this point well, and depend on it, and I have seen this point made by our predecessor shaykhs."
Ar-Raaziyy said they are not Muslims:
الدليل دل على أن من قال إن الإله جسم فهو منكر للإله تعالى وذلك لأن إله العالم موجود ليس بجسم ولا حال في الجسم فإذا أنكر المجسم هذا الموجود فقد أنكر ذات الإله تعالى فالخلاف بين المجسم والموحد ليس في الصفة بل في الذات فصح في المجسم أنه لا يؤمن بالله أما المسائل التي حكيتموها فهي اختلافات في الصفة فظهر الفرق وأما إلزام مذهب الحلولية والحروفية فنحن نكفرهم قطعاً فإنه تعالى كفر النصارى بسبب أنهم اعتقدوا حلول كلمة اللَّهِ في عيسى وهؤلاء اعتقدوا حلول كلمة اللَّهِ في ألسنة جميع من قرأ القرآن وفي جميع الأجسام التي كتب فيها القرآن فإذا كان القول بالحلول في حق الذات الواحدة يوجب التكفير فلأن يكون القول بالحلول في حق جميع الأشخاص والأجسام موجباً للقول بالتكفير كان أولى (مفاتيح الغيب – دار الكتب العلمية, 16 /24)
"Proofs tell us that the who says that God is a body is a disbeliever in God (who is greatly above and clear of flaws). The reason is that the God of the World exists, and He is not a body, or stationed in a body. So if the one who believes that God is a body denies this non-bodily existence, then he has disbelieved in God Himself. This means that the disagreement between the one that believes that God is a body, and the monotheist (i.e. in the Islamic sense, namely that God does not have a partner, part or a like in His self of attributes), is not based on a disagreement regarding attributes, but regarding the self (i.e. the identity of the one attributed with godhood.) It is sound to say then, that the one who believes that God is a body does not believe in Aļļaah….
As for the ĥuluuliyyah (those who believe that Aļļaah settles in created things, such as the sky or a human body) and ĥuruufiyyah (those who believe that Aļļaah’s attribute of kalam/speech consists of letters and sounds) sects, we say that they are unequivocally disbelievers. This is because Aļļaah declared the christians blasphemers for believing that Aļļaah’s speech entered into Jesus, whereas the ĥuruufiyyah believe that it settles in the tongue of all those who recite Qur’aan, and in all physical things that the Qur’aan was written on. Accordingly, if the belief in its settlement in one single body (Jesus) is blasphemy, then it is even more blasphemous to believe that it settles in all shapes and bodies."
As-Subkiyy calls them idol worshipers:
As-Subkiyy in his Tabaqaatu-sħ-Sħaafiˆiyyatu-l-Kubraa says regarding scripture texts that appear to be referring to bodily attributes:
طبقات الشافعية الكبرى : إنما المصيبة الكبرى والداهية الدهياء الإمرار على الظاهر والاعتقاد أنه المراد وأنه لا يستحيل على الباري فذلك قول المجسمة عباد الوثن الذين في قلوبهم زيغ يحملهم الزيغ على اتباع المتشابه ابتغاء الفتنة عليهم لعائن الله تترى واحدة بعد أخرى ما أجرأهم على الكذب وأقل فهمهم للحقائق طبقات الشافعية الكبرى ج 5 ص 192
"the saying of the mujassimah (anthropomorphists), worshipers of the idol, makes them always focus on ambiguous aayahs."
Al-Qurţubiyy and Ibn Al-ˆarabiyy
الصحيح القول بتكفيرهم ، إذ لا فرق بينهم وبين عباد الأصنام والصور.
Similarly, Al-Qurtubīy in his commentary in the Qur’ān narrates from his Shaykh Ibn Al-’Arabīy regarding the those who say Allāh has a body: "The sound verdict is that they are blasphemers, because there is no difference between them and those that worship idols and pictures." (Tafsiir Al-Qurţubiyy, 4/14).