Qadari Contention: Many verses and hadiths state that humans are responsible and act according to what is inside of them, which means that human will is not predestined. An example:
Say: (It is) the truth is from your Lord. Then whomsoever will, let him believe, and whosoever will, let him disbelieve.” 18:29
Sunni Response: None of these statements conflict with the fact that Allah has created all acts and predestined them. None of them say that the will and action of creation is not created by Allah, and it is made even clearer as follows:
The statement “Then whomsoever will, let him believe, and whosoever will, let him disbelieve.” If this is indeed the meaning of the aayah, is a threat, and not an order or a permission. This is the saying of the linguist Az-Zajjaaj. Another interpretation is that the belief and blasphemy of creation does not benefit or harm Allah. Yet another saying of the scholars is that it means Then whomsoever Allah wills, let him believe, and whosoever Allah wills, let him disbelieve.” In any case, if the first interpretation is meant, then this simply means that the human being has the created ability to choose to commit the forbidden blasphemy, or the obligated belief. This presumed ability however is created by Allah and according to His Will, just as the actual choice made in the end. In this regard, it is mentioned in tafsiir books that when this was revealed:
…then the idolaters said, “so it is up to us, if we want, we will.” So Allah revealed:
Note that you cannot separate between Allah’s Will and His Creating, because Allah said:
The conclusion is that humans have a choice and a will, but their choices and will are creations of Allah. The difference between this and being forced is the difference between what we feel are voluntary acts, such as standing up to walk into another room, and involuntary acts, such as sleepwalking. We are accountable for the former, but not the latter.
Authored by Shaykh Abu Adam al Naruiji